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La lutte contre le gaspillage alimentaire en France et aux États-Unis : Mise en cause, mise en politique et mise en marché des excédents alimentaires

Abstract : Through the case of the “fight against food waste” in France and the United States, this thesis aims to reveal how, concretely, capitalist organizations evolve as they incorporate social and ecological critiques, following what Boltanski and Chiapello theorized in The New Spirit of Capitalism (2007). Based on the qualitative analysis of 213 interviews and more than 125 observations within environmental and charity organizations, public administrations, and private firms in the two countries, carried out from 2013 to 2017, this research shows how food waste was constructed as a public issue, became the object of public policies, and how it impacted the functioning of food production and markets. I argue that activists, policy makers, and corporate social responsibility managers have ensured not only the politicization but also the (re)marketization of food that used to be thrown away, through mechanisms of revaluation, reallocation, and recategorization. These food waste entrepreneurs adopted a consensual and reformist approach, which rarely tackled the underlying power relationships generating excess food. Thus, they contributed to reshaping food systems in a way that favored powerful firms—as well as non-profit or start-up founders who benefited from new opportunities. Offering this reflexive insight, this thesis encourages actors in the fight against food waste in both France and the United States to question their own role in promoting the adaptation of capitalist organizations.
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Marie Mourad. La lutte contre le gaspillage alimentaire en France et aux États-Unis : Mise en cause, mise en politique et mise en marché des excédents alimentaires. Sociologie. Institut d'études politiques de Paris, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-03270709⟩

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