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« La recherche de la vérité » : recensements et statisticiens dans l’Espagne du XIXe siècle

Abstract : The aim of this dissertation is to propose a political, social and cultural history of the Spanish census of metropolitan and colonial population in nineteenth-century (1812-1910). It deals first with an administrative and intellectual history of the institutionalization process of official statistics and reconsiders the creation, in 1856, of a Statistical Office at the top of the Spanish Liberal State, long described by historiography solely through the prism of its failures. Counting and inspection practices are closely analysed in relation with the social and material realities of the censuses executed between 1857 and 1910. The research addresses the political and juridical issues of categorizing the inhabitants, economic activities and subjects of the overseas empire in the ethno-racial hierarchy of slave society. It provides a study of the careers and practices of the first generations of civil servants statisticians deployed in each province in the "search for truth". The thesis demonstrates that statistical administration must deal with the legacies of the imperial monarchy in order to negotiate its territorial deployment, the participation of local communities in surveys and promote the application of the criteria of objectivity discussed by the international congress of statistics. We argue that the population census develops a limited autonomy from fiscal negotiations between the municipal oligarchies and public finance. Consequently, in nineteenth-century Spain, statistical office and statisticians’ legitimity is more the result of their action as a "control administration" than a capacity to impose at the crossroads of Science and Administration.
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Submitted on : Monday, April 25, 2022 - 4:39:19 PM
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Mathieu Aguilera. « La recherche de la vérité » : recensements et statisticiens dans l’Espagne du XIXe siècle. Histoire. Institut d'études politiques de Paris - Sciences Po, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020IEPP0016⟩. ⟨tel-03651382⟩



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