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Inventer Gramsci au XX ème siècle. Décomposition d’une intelligence française au prisme italien

Abstract : Gramsci's reception in France in the 20th century started from (1) “imaginary” foundations. It was developed in a context of ignorance of the original texts, mythologies and legends already circulating from the years 1920-1930. Slowness, obstacles and even editorial censorship facilitated clandestine circulation and savage appropriations, enabling mediated readings by selective interpretative grids, but also endogenous misappropriations in the French context in the 1950s and 1960s. (2) It has been a “symbolic construction” from 1968 at least, with uses of the Gramscian reference whose stakes are specific to the specific games of French intellectual actors, in their respective fields, both academic and political, also aiming to assert the polymorphic role of the intellectual in the public space. It is a question here in particular by the invention of concepts often in philological shift with the original texts, following partial translations: ideological apparatus of State (Althusser then Foucault, Derrida, Deleuze, known as “French Theory” in the American academia), historical block (Garaudy then Mitterrand), collective intellectual (Desanti then Bourdieu) among others, whose golden age was the 1970s at the heart of the debates on the union of the left. (3) Finally, the “reality” of the Gramscian imprint has been limited: weak contact with the “subaltern classes” and absence of organic reception in the unions and left-wing parties, absence of academic ‘disciplinarization’, change of intellectual paradigm in the years 1970-1980, conceptual hijacking on the part of the "New Right" but also changes in the Parisian public space making his reception in France ultimately precarious and compromised. Paradoxically, this led to a more creative, diffuse and rooted reception in a vast Francophone community during the years 1980-1990, but also in the French regions or overseas territories, than in the Parisian space where its circulation was both intense but encoded, diffuse as well as superficial.
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Submitted on : Monday, November 29, 2021 - 6:57:50 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, March 26, 2022 - 3:28:42 AM


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Anthony Crezegut. Inventer Gramsci au XX ème siècle. Décomposition d’une intelligence française au prisme italien. Histoire. Sciences Po - Institut d'études politiques de Paris, 2020. Français. ⟨tel-03455767⟩



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