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Réguler et conduire : de la critique de la prison à la pénalité néolibérale

Abstract : This research deals with the contemporary mutations of punishment, from the perspective of the Foucauldian hypothesis of an emerging neoliberal governmentality. Neoliberalism seems to be resting upon the decline of disciplinary power techniques, such as described in particular by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish. Neoliberalism breaks with monopolistic authority, direct power on bodies, and the institutional detention of individuals. Yet, disciplinary power had, according to Foucault, a privileged link with the prison institution: the prison is the archetype of discipline. It is so to the extent that the calling into question of the disciplinary model of power by the emergence of neoliberal governmentality implies a deeper questioning of the penal system, through the constitution of the prison as a problem. If the prison institution has become problematic, if the penal system is reforming itself through the critique of prison, it is because it has become an obvious archaism, an obsolete art of governing human behaviors, in spite of the permanency and even the increase of the number of incarcerations. The prison thus constitutes a strategic object for the study of the transition between forms of government: neoliberalism can be analyzed through its specific activity both against prison walls and beyond them. It enlightens contemporary phenomena, from internal penal critiques to factual transformations of the general functions of punishment: penal regulation and post-custodial, open and outdoor punishments aiming at rehabilitation (reinsertion). Through the study of these penal mutations, a contemporary, specific apparatus of power can be comprehended.
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Victor Fontaine. Réguler et conduire : de la critique de la prison à la pénalité néolibérale. Science politique. Sciences Po - Institut d'études politiques de Paris, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017IEPP0029⟩. ⟨tel-03455345⟩

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