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De la sécurité environnementale à la prévention des risques : le changement climatique dans les politiques de défense aux États-Unis

Abstract : At the end of the Cold War, the United States Department of Defense launches several programs aimed at identifying the main threats that can undermine the hegemony of the United States in international politics and more generally international security. At the same time, during the 1990s, the concepts of “human security” and “environmental security” gain influence within international organizations to qualify new forms of insecurity that weigh more specifically on civilian populations. Under the favorable auspices of the Clinton administration, the United States Department of Defense then inaugurates its first office to study the implications of environmental security for the defense sector, headed by a team previously in charge of the greening of military bases and installations. Building on the pioneer works dedicated to the connection between resource scarcity and conflict in the 1970s, this office pushes for a better integration of environmental factors in strategic thinking. Despite the freeze of a substantial part of these initiatives on environmental security under the Bush administration, this community regathers in the mid-2000s around the definition of a potential new threat: climate change. However, the study of the strategic implications of a changing climate differs from the environmental security approach. Climate change is indeed perceived as a long-term phenomenon that can potentially fuel existing threats (terrorism, piracy, migrations) and lead to a more frequent use of the armed forces. Based on thirty interviews with both civil and military personnel at the Department of Defense and on an analysis of institutional archives, this article offers to explore this normative evolution by building on the literature in security studies and strategic thought to complement the debates on the recent evolutions of defense policies.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 9, 2022 - 12:01:50 PM
Last modification on : Friday, June 10, 2022 - 3:35:30 AM




Adrien Estève. De la sécurité environnementale à la prévention des risques : le changement climatique dans les politiques de défense aux États-Unis. Les Champs de Mars : revue d'études sur la guerre et la paix, Institut de recherche stratégique de l'Ecole militaire (IRSEM) ; Presses de Sciences Po, 2022, 2020/2 (N° 35), pp.27-48. ⟨10.3917/lcdm.035.0027⟩. ⟨hal-03691726⟩



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