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La Russie face aux révoltes libyenne et syrienne. Des enjeux jugés majeurs, une politique défensive

Abstract : Challenged by the uprisings in the Arab World, Russia has changed its attitude toward the Arab Spring. After having understood and in a way supported the revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt, the Russian government started to disagree with European, Arab, and US policies towards and analysis of the Arab Spring in other countries. Russian officials expressed their disagreement first in the Libyan case and then more clearly in the Syrian case. Two kinds of reasons can explain the evolution of the Russian diplomacy. First, regional reasons: Syria is a long-standing ally of Russia in the Middle East that buys Russian weapons and allows Moscow to use the Tartous naval base. Second, international factors: after the NATO intervention in Libya, the Russian leaders refused any kind of political change from outside and an expansion of NATO’s areas of operation; they are convinced that national sovereignties should be protected as they guarantee the stability of the international order. At the start of 2013 with regards to the Syrian war, Russia seemed isolated; its policy was considered counterproductive. As the war is still harming Syria and its people, some analysts stress a paradox in Russian diplomacy: namely, the fact that by supporting Assad’s regime, Moscow may be not following its own economic interests, which should in fact lead this country to form stronger partnerships with the Gulf monarchies.
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Anne de Tinguy. La Russie face aux révoltes libyenne et syrienne. Des enjeux jugés majeurs, une politique défensive. M'hamed Oualdi; Delphine Pagès-El Karoui; Chantal Verdeil. Les ondes de choc des révolutions arabes, Institut français du Proche-Orient, pp.85 - 103, 2014. ⟨hal-03460424⟩



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