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L’identification biométrique de 1,3 milliard d’Indiens. Milieux d’affaires, Etat et société civile

Abstract : Biometric Identification of 1.3 Billion Indians. The business Community, the State and the Civil Society -- In 2009, India embarked on a scheme for the biometric identification of its people. This project was conceived by IT companies based in Bengaluru. The programme’s main architect, Nandan Nilekani, was in fact the head of one of these firms. The idea behind the project was to use digital technology – and the data it enables to collect – for economic ends. But to register the entire Indian population, the State had to be persuaded to be involved in the project, later named as "Aadhaar". The rationale that secured the government’s engagement was financial: using Aadhaar would help disburse aid to the poor while minimising the "leakages" caused by corruption and duplicates among beneficiaries. Yet, possessing an Aadhaar number gradually became necessary for a number of other things, too, including tax payment. When approached to rule on this matter, the Supreme Court dragged its feet and did not seek to decisively protect people’s privacy. As for the avowed aim of the scheme itself, Aadhaar did not improve the quality of the services rendered to the poor – far from it – and its economic impact, too, remains to be proven, even if operators who believe that "data is the new oil" consider benefits in a long term perspective.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 24, 2020 - 11:14:41 AM
Last modification on : Monday, March 21, 2022 - 2:50:08 PM
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Christophe Jaffrelot, Nicolas Berlogey. L’identification biométrique de 1,3 milliard d’Indiens. Milieux d’affaires, Etat et société civile. 2020. ⟨hal-03021219⟩



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