, These are the initiatives that gave rise to the Rationalisation des Choix Budgétaires, the French version of the US Planning, Programming and Budgeting System

, The public sector enterprises covered in the report are limited to four: the railways

, This automatic effect will be referred to as "GVT" (Glissement Vieillesse Technicité)

, the trade unions complained about this attempt to impose uniform wage increases both on public enterprises and on the civil service, vol.187, 1964.

, National Accounts in Statistiques et Etudes Financières, vol.388, 1982.

, The numerical data relating to growth in public spending and especially to debt reveal a less unfavorable situation in France than in a good number of other countries at the same period-a factor that cannot have encouraged the government to implement or publicize drastic budgetary policies

, Information based on interviews with former members of the Budget Directorate

. Wb-=-gi-+-ci-+-gvt, where PI = Prices increase; WBI = wages bill increase

, GI = general increases (i.e., increases negotiated annually between the civil service trade unions and the government)

, the sum of measures that apply to only one group, corps, or category); GVT: Glissement Vieillesse Technicité = the effects of automatic growth of the wage bill by taking into account promotion by seniority and changes in technical expertise requirements, CI = category increases (i.e

, Until 1977, the maintenance of purchasing power was officially calculated using the levels of the civil service salary point: the value of the reference point used to calculate civil servants

, Demanding a 6% wage increase by level is less specific than demanding an increase of 6% calculated on the basis of the wage bill

, The first manifestation symbolic of this change was that standards were set to try to limit spending growth and restrict the level of deficits: in March 1982-on the initiative of the French president, in consultation with ministers-a limiting threshold for the budget deficit of 3% GDP was established publicly. This decision is dated to February 2, vol.496, 1982.

, These phases were identified through comparison of three types of data: information gathered during our interviews with members of the Budget Directorate at the period and with some of the trade unionists involved in the negotiations, and general articles on civil service wages policy, 1992.

, GVT balance"-that is, a wage bill calculated from growth in the average per capita wage for the permanent workforce (in the jargon of the Budget Directorate, the salaire moyen par tête, or SMPT), by integrating the structural variations in the population studied and by taking into account the two component mechanisms of GVT: the effect of the positive impact on the wage bill of promotion by length of service, by selection or by rank and the acquisition of new technical expertise (known as "positive GVT"), and the shuttle effect (or "negative GVT") which shows the generally negative impact on the wage bill of the interplay between workforce entries and exits, Up to 1984-1985, the amount of GVT had been calculated on an inclusive basis and it represented the assessed

, INSEE was opposed to other methods of calculation

, It was therefore necessary to neutralize the effects of negative GVT (entries and exits) and take into account only positive GVT

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