, The balance of trade, in continuous decline since the creation of the Eurozone because of a lack of competitiveness in the non-military industrial sectors, turned negative in 2003, switching directly from +0.6 to -4 billion euros, 2007.
, French public spending grew faster than GDP: over the period 2004-2008, the gap between France's and Germany's public debt-to-GDP ratios was five points
, , 2010.
, the highest rate among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, just behind Italy (before its reforms). The 2010 reform in France provided for a gradual increase in the minimum pension age from 60 to 62 by 2017, depending on the year of birth, and an increase in the full pension age from 65 to 67 between 2016 and 2022. The contribution rates of civil servants
, Health insurance spending in the basic social security systems accounted for 16% of total public spending in 2010
, The decree implementing the increase in the VAT rate was published in the Official Journal the same day as the second round of the presidential election
A positive theory of budget deficits and government debt, Review of Economic Studies, vol.57, pp.403-414, 1990. ,
Fiscal transparency, political parties, and debt in OECD countries, European Economic Review, vol.50, pp.1430-1439, 2006. ,
Flash Economie, No. 804, 2013. ,
Patterns of public budgeting in the French Fifth Republic, pp.174-190, 2009. ,
Cutting French civil service wages with a low-profile instrument, Governance, vol.20, issue.1, pp.23-56, 2007. ,
Une mise en perspective historique et comparative. Revue franç aise, vol.4, pp.769-796, 2010. ,
Great Transformations. Economic Ideas and Institutional Change in the Twentieth Century, 2002. ,
, The French Fifth Republic at Fifty, 2009.
Que faire de la dette? Un audit de la dette publique de la France, 2014. ,
Le sursaut. Vers une nouvelle croissance pour la France. Ministe`re de l'e´conomie, des finances et de l'industrie. Paris: La documentation franc¸aise, 2004. ,
Rapport sur la situation des finances publiques, 2010. ,
Les politiques e´conomiques sous Sarkozy, Les politiques publiques sous Sarkozy. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, pp.299-320, 2012. ,
Comparative capitalisms, ideational political economy and French postdirigiste responses to the global financial crisis, New Political Economy, vol.17, issue.5, pp.565-590, 2012. ,
Economic policy-making in France after the crisis. Paper prepared for The Max Planck Sciences Po Center (MaxPo) seminar series Conversations on Ö konomie, Politics and Society, 2013. ,
Joined at the hip, but pulling apart? Franco-German relations, the Eurozone crisis and the politics of austerity, French Politics, vol.12, pp.136-163, 2014. ,
, Report on the state and prospects of the public finances, Cour des comptes, 2010.
, Cour des comptes. Cour des comptes (2013) Rapport public annuel
The social construction of an imperative. Why welfare reform happened in Denmark and the Netherlands but not in Germany, World Politics, vol.53, pp.463-498, 2001. ,
, Public finance White Paper, 2010.
A new political system model: Semi-presidential government, European Journal of Political Research, vol.8, issue.2, pp.165-187, 1980. ,
, Bringing French public debt down: The options for fiscal consolidation, 2012.
, The Semi-Presidentialism in Europe, 1999.
Political fragmentation, fiscal deficits and political institutionalization, Public Choice, vol.136, pp.255-267, 2008. ,
The French Presidency, Developments in French Politics 5. Basingstoke, pp.19-34, 2013. ,
, The 2012 ageing report: Economic and budgetary projections for the 27 EU member states, 2010.
Le re´gime politique de la Ve Re´publique, 1998. ,
Governments under the Fifth Republic: The changing instruments/ weapons of executive control, pp.41-58, 2009. ,
, The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism across Nations, 1989.
Governing from the Centre: Core Executive Coordination in France, 2002. ,
The risk game and the blame game, Government and Opposition, vol.37, issue.1, pp.15-37, 2002. ,
Making and breaking the rules: French policy on EU economic governance, Journal of European Public Policy, vol.14, issue.7, pp.1061-1078, 2007. ,
Rationalizing Parliament. Legislative Institutions and Party Politics in France, 1996. ,
, IGF (Inspection ge´ne´rale des Finances) (2012) Bilan de la RGPP et conditions de re´ussite de la nouvelle re´forme de l'Etat, IGAS (Inspection ge´ne´rale des Affaires sociales)
State responses to the fiscal crisis in Britain, Germany and the Netherlands, Public Management Review, vol.14, issue.3, pp.299-309, 2012. ,
La de´centralisation, la structure du financement et les jeux de transfert de l'impopularite´en France, Gouverner (par) les finances publiques, pp.149-192, 2011. ,
Obfuscating retrenchment: Swedish welfare policy in the 1990s, Journal of Public Policy, vol.27, issue.2, pp.129-150, 2007. ,
, OECD (2011) É tudes e´conomiques de l'OCDE : France 2011, É ditions OCDE. OECD (2013) Pensions at a Glance 2013: OECD and G20 Indicators
The Government Taketh Away. The Politics of Pain in the United States and Canada, 2003. ,
Rompre avec la facilite´de la dette publique. Paris: La documentation franc¸aise, 2005. ,
Dismantling the Welfare State? Reagan, Thatcher, and the Politics of Retrenchment, 1994. ,
Coping with permanent austerity. Welfare state restructuring in affluent democracies, The New Politics of the Welfare State, pp.410-456, 2001. ,
, Les chantiers de la decennia, 2014.
Governments versus budget deficits, Do Institutions Matter, pp.187-236, 1991. ,
, Sine´A (2006) L'Ordre budge´taire. L'e´conomie politique des de´penses de l'E´tat
The politics of welfare state retrenchment. A literature review, Social Policy and Administration, vol.40, issue.1, pp.104-120, 2006. ,
Public finances and the decline of state capacity in democratic capitalism, Politics in the Age of Austerity, pp.26-58, 2013. ,
Varieties of liberalism: Keynesianism responses to the Great Recession in France and Germany, Governance, vol.27, issue.1, pp.63-85, 2014. ,
The politics of blame-avoidance, The Journal of Public Policy, vol.6, pp.371-398, 1986. ,
Budgeting. A Comparative Theory of Budgetary Processes, 1975. ,
, His academic interests are administrative reforms and bureaucracies in France and in comparative perspective, state restructuring, institutional change and public policy. He is preparing a co-edited volume (with Steven van de Walle, Gerhard Hammerschmid and Rhys Andrews) entitled Public Administration Reforms in Europe: The View from the Top, Philippe Bezes is Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Research Professor in Political Science at the Centre d'É tudes et de Recherches de Sciences Administratives et Politiques (CERSA)
His main research interests are decentralization policies, local government reforms and territorial restructuring in comparative perspective, including such items as national trajectories of territorial reforms, multi-level and metropolitan governance, the sociology of public finance, and the sociology of political work. He recently published 'Decentralisation and territorial reforms in France: How constitutional constraints impact strategies for reform, Changing Federal Constitutions. Lessons from International Comparison, 2012. ,