B. W. Ansell, Traders, Teachers, and Tyrants: Democracy, Globalization, and Public Investment in Education, International Organization, vol.62, issue.2, pp.289-322, 2008.

B. W. Ansell, From the Ballot to the Blackboard: The Redistributive Political Economy of Education, 2010.

M. Becher and J. Pontusson, Whose interests do unions represent? Unionization by income in Western Europe, Research in the Sociology of Work, vol.22, pp.181-211, 2011.

D. Béland, Ideas and social policy: an institutionalist perspective, Social Policy & Administration, vol.39, issue.1, pp.1-18, 2005.

D. Béland, Ideas, institutions, and policy change, Journal of European Public Policy, vol.16, issue.5, pp.701-718, 2009.

R. D. Benford and D. A. Snow, Framing Processes and Social Movements: an Overview and Assessment. Annual Review of, Sociology, vol.26, pp.611-639, 2000.

P. Beramendi, S. Häusermann, H. Kitschelt, and H. Kriesi, The Politics of Advanced Capitalism, 2015.

V. Birchfield and M. M. Crepaz, The impact of constitutional structures and collective and competitive veto points on income inequality in industrialized democracies, European Journal of Political Research, vol.34, issue.2, pp.175-200, 1998.

P. Bleses and M. Seeleib-kaiser, The dual transformation of the German welfare state, 2004.

C. Boix, Political parties, growth and equality: conservative and social democratic economic strategies in the world economy, 1998.

C. Bolzendahl and C. Brooks, Women's political representation and welfare state spending in 12 capitalist democracies, Social Forces, vol.85, issue.4, pp.1509-1534, 2007.

G. Bonoli, The Origins of Active Social Policy: Labour Market and childcare policies in a comparative perspective, 2013.

G. Bonoli, Providing coverage against new social risks in mature welfare states, The politics of the new social policies, vol.33, pp.431-449, 2005.

G. Bonoli and F. Reber, The political economy of childcare in OECD countries: Explaining cross-national variation in spending and coverage rates, European Journal of Political Research, vol.49, issue.1, pp.97-118, 2010.

F. Bourguignon, F. Ferreira, . Hg, and P. G. Leite, Conditional cash transfers, schooling, and child labor: Micro-simulating Brazil's Bolsa Escola program, The World Bank Economic Review, vol.17, issue.2, pp.229-254, 2003.

C. Breunig and M. R. Busemeyer, Fiscal austerity and the trade-off between public investment and social spending, Journal of European Public Policy, vol.19, issue.6, pp.921-938, 2012.

M. R. Busemeyer, Social democrats and the new partisan politics of public investment in education, Journal of European Public Policy, vol.16, issue.1, pp.107-126, 2009.

M. R. Busemeyer, Skills and inequality. Partisan politics and the political economy of education reforms in Western welfare states, 2015.

M. R. Busemeyer, . Franzmann, T. Simon, and J. L. Garritzmann, Who Owns Education? Cleavage Structures in the Partisan Competition over Educational Expansion, West European Politics, vol.36, issue.3, pp.521-546, 2013.

M. R. Busemeyer and R. Nikolai, The Oxford handbook of the welfare state, 2010.

R. Campbell, S. Childs, and J. Und-lovenduski, Do women need women representatives?, British Journal of Political Science, vol.40, issue.1, pp.171-194, 2010.

B. Cantillon, The paradox of the social investment state: growth, employment and poverty in the Lisbon era, Journal of European Social Policy, vol.21, issue.5, pp.432-449, 2011.

F. G. Castles, Explaining public-education expenditure in OECD nations, European Journal of Political Research, vol.17, issue.4, pp.431-479, 1989.

F. G. Castles, Comparative Public Policy. Patterns of Post-war Transformations, 1998.

F. G. Castles, The impact of parties on public expenditure, The impact of parties: Politics and policies in democratic capitalist states, pp.21-96, 1982.

S. Cecchini and A. Madariaga, Programas de Transferencias Condicionadas: Balance de la Experiencia en América Latina y el Caribe, 2011.

B. Ebbinghaus, The Politics of PostIndustrial Welfare States. Adapting post-war social policies to new social risks, 2006.

P. Emmenegger, . Häusermann, . Silja, . Palier, . Bruno et al., The Age of Dualization. The Changing Face of Inequality in Deindustrializing Societies, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01393458

P. Emmenegger, . Häusermann, . Silja, . Palier, . Bruno et al., The Age of Dualization. The Changing Face of Inequality in Deindustrializing Societies, pp.3-26, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01393458

G. Esping-andersen, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, 1990.

G. Esping-andersen, A child-centred social investment strategy, Why We Need a New Welfare State, pp.26-67, 2002.

M. Estevez-abe, T. Iversen, and D. Soskice, Social Protection and the Formation of Skills. A Reinterpretation of the Welfare State, Varieties of Capitalism. The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, pp.145-183, 2001.

T. B. Fenwick, From Bolsa Familia to Sem Miséria: Brazil's Emerging Social Investment Agenda. Paper prepared for the International Sociological Association World Congress, Yokohama, 2014.

J. J. Fernández, J. , and A. M. , Positive or Negative Policy Feedbacks? Explaining Popular Attitudes Towards Pragmatic Pension Policy Reforms, European Sociological Review, vol.29, issue.4, pp.803-815, 2012.

R. Fernandez, R. , and R. , On the Political Economy of Education Subsidies, Review of Economic Studies, vol.62, issue.2, pp.249-262, 1995.

T. Fleckenstein, The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, vol.18, issue.4, pp.543-571, 2011.

F. Fossati and S. Häusermann, Social Policy Preferences and Party Choice in the 2011 Swiss Elections, vol.20, pp.590-611, 2014.

J. L. Garritzmann, Attitudes towards student support: How positive feedback-effects prevent change in the Four Worlds of Student Finance, Journal of European Social Policy, vol.25, issue.2, pp.139-158, 2015.

J. L. Garritzmann, The Political Economy of Higher Education Finance, 2016.

J. L. Garritzmann and K. Seng, Party Politics and Education Spending: Challenging Some Common Wisdom, Journal of European Public Policy, vol.23, issue.4, pp.510-530, 2016.

I. Gerlach, Familienpolitik. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2004.

J. Ghysels, V. Lancker, and W. , The unequal benefits of activation: an analysis of the social distribution of family policy among families with young children, Journal of European Social Policy, vol.21, issue.5, pp.472-485, 2011.

A. Giddens, The third way: The renewal of social democracy, 1998.

J. Gingrich and S. Häusermann, The decline of the working class vote, the reconfiguration of the welfare support coalition and consequences for the welfare state, Journal of European Social Policy, vol.25, pp.50-75, 2015.

J. Gingrich, A. , and B. , The Dynamics of Social Investment: Human Capital, Activation and Care, pp.282-304, 2015.

P. A. Hall and D. Soskice, An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism, Varieties of Capitalism. The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, pp.1-70, 2001.

P. A. Hall, Policy Paradigms, Social Learning, and the State: The Case of Economic Policymaking in Britain, Comparative Politics, vol.25, issue.3, pp.275-296, 1993.

P. A. Hall, Social Policies in the World Band: Paradigms and challenges, Global Social Policy, vol.7, issue.2, pp.151-175, 2007.

P. A. Hall, Historical institutionalism in rationalist and sociological perspective, Explaining Institutional Change, pp.204-224, 2010.

P. A. Hall, How Growth Regimes Evolve in the Developed Democracies. Paper presented at the 22nd International Conference of Europeanists, 2015.

H. Han, Vision 2030: Social Welfare as an Investment for the Future, vol.3, pp.42-43, 2007.

A. Hassel and B. Palier, National Growth Strategies and Welfare Reforms. Presentation prepared for the 22nd International Conference of Europeanists, 2015.

S. Häusermann, Changing coalitions in social policy reforms: the politics of new social needs and demands, Journal of European Social Policy, vol.16, issue.1, pp.5-21, 2006.

S. Häusermann, The Politics of Welfare State Reform in Continental Europe. Modernization in Hard Times, 2010.

S. Häusermann and D. Kübler, Policy Frames and Coalition Dynamics in the Recent Reforms of Swiss Family Policy, German Policy Studies, vol.6, issue.3, pp.163-194, 2010.

S. Häusermann, G. Picot, and D. Geering, Partisan Politics and the Welfare State. Recent Advances in the Literature, British Journal of Political Science, vol.43, issue.1, pp.221-240, 2013.

S. Häusermann and B. Palier, The politics of social investment: policy legacies and class coalitions. In: Hemerijck, Anton

S. Häusermann and C. Zollinger, Political dynamics of social investment reforms in continental welfare states. German and Swiss family policy reforms since 1980, 2014.

S. Häusermann and C. Zollinger, Political dynamics of family policy modernization in post-industrial welfare states. Paper Prepared for Annual Congress of the Swiss Political Science Association, 2015.

A. J. Heidenheimer, The politics of public education, health and welfarein the USA and Western Europe: How growth and reform potentials have differed, British Journal of Political Science, vol.3, issue.3, pp.315-340, 1973.

A. Hemerijck, Two ore three waves of welfare state transformation?, Towards a Social Investment Welfare State? Ideas, Policies and Challenges, pp.1-30, 2012.

A. Hemerijck, Changing Welfare States, 2013.

D. A. Hibbs, Political parties and macroeconomic policy, American Political Science Review, vol.71, pp.1467-1487, 1977.

T. Hieda, Politics of childcare policy beyond the left-right scale: Post-industrialisation, transformation of party systems and welfare state restructuring, European Journal of Political Research, vol.52, issue.4, pp.483-511, 2013.

M. Howlett, R. , M. Perl, and A. , Studying Public Policy. Policy Cycles & Policy Subsystems, 2009.

E. Huber, C. Ragin, and J. D. Stephens, Social Democracy, Christian Democracy, Constitutional Structure, and the Welfare State, American Journal of Sociology, vol.99, issue.3, pp.711-749, 1993.

E. Huber and J. D. Stephens, Partisan governance, women's employment, and the social democratic service state, American Sociological Review, vol.65, issue.3, pp.323-342, 2000.

E. Huber and J. D. Stephens, Development and Crisis of the Welfare State. Parties and Policies in Global Markets, 2001.

E. Huber and J. D. Stephens, Social Investment in Latin America. Paper prepared for the International Sociological Association World Congress, 2014.

J. Hui, . Chong, J. Young, and . Choi, Why women hesitate to work in South Korea: conditions for effective social investment policies, International Conference on Assessing the social investment strategy, vol.10, 2014.

J. Huo, M. Nelson, and J. D. Stephens, Decommodification and activation in social democratic policy: resolving the paradox, Journal of European Social Policy, vol.18, issue.1, pp.5-20, 2008.

T. Iversen, Capitalism, democracy, and welfare, 2005.

T. Iversen, Class politics is dead! Long live class politics! A political economy perspective on the new partisan politics, vol.17, pp.1-6, 2006.

T. Iversen and J. D. Stephens, Partisan Politics, the Welfare State, and Three Worlds of Human Capital Formation, Comparative Political Studies, vol.41, issue.4-5, pp.600-637, 2008.

A. M. Jacobs and R. K. Weaver, When Policies Undo Themselves: Self-undermining Feedback as a Source of Policy Change, Governance, vol.28, issue.4, pp.441-457, 2015.

J. Jenson, Paradigms and Political Discourse: Protective Legislation in France and the United States Before 1914, Canadian Journal of Political Science, vol.2, pp.234-257, 1989.

J. Jenson, Diffusing Ideas for After Neoliberalism: The Social Investment Perspective in Europe and Latin America, Global Social Policy, vol.10, pp.59-84, 2010.

J. Jenson, A New Politics for the Social Investment Perspective. Objectives, Instruments, and Areas of Intervention in Welfare Regimes, The Politics of the New Welfare State, pp.21-44, 2012.

J. Jenson and D. Saint-martin, Building Blocks for a New Social Architecture: The Lego TM Paradigm of an Active Society, Policy & Politics, vol.34, issue.3, pp.429-51, 2006.

Y. Kim, Social Investment Strategy in Korea: Possibilities, Issues and Prospects. Paper prepared for a Conference on Social Investment Strategy, Seoul Welfare Foundation, 2007.

J. W. Kingdon, Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies, 1995.

J. W. Kingdon, Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies, 2010.

H. Kitschelt, The Transformation of European Social Democracy, 1994.

H. Kitschelt and P. Rehm, New Social Risk and political preferences, The Politics of Post-Industrial Welfare States. Adapting Post-War Social Policies to New Social Risks. London and, 2006.

W. Korpi, The Democratic Class Struggle. London: Routledge and Kegan, 1983.

J. Kraft, . Van-kersbergen, and . Van, De-universalization and Selective Social Investment in Scandinavia? In: Hemerijck, Anton

D. Kübler, Understanding the Recent Expansion of Swiss Family Policy: An Idea-Centred Approach, Journal of Social Policy, vol.36, issue.2, pp.217-237, 2007.

J. Kvist, Social Investment Reforms: How to Achieve More with Less. Unpublished Working Paper, 2016.

M. León and E. Pavolini, Social Investment'or back to 'Familism': The impact of the economic crisis on Family and Care Policies in Italy and Spain, South European Society and Politics, vol.19, issue.3, pp.353-369, 2014.

A. Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy: Government forms and performance in 36 countries, 1999.

R. Mahon, After Neo-Liberalism? The OECD, the World Bank and the Child, Global Social Policy, vol.10, issue.2, pp.172-192, 2010.

R. Mahon and J. Lewis, The OECD and the work/family reconciliation agenda: competing frames, Children, changing families and welfare states, pp.173-197, 2006.

J. Mahoney and K. Thelen, A Theory of Gradual Institutional Change, Explaining Institutional Change, pp.1-37, 2010.

P. Manow, . Palier, and . Bruno, forthcoming): Political competition and voter/party alignment in times of welfare state transformations

S. Mettler, Bringing the State Back In to Civic Engagement: Policy Feedback. Effects of the G.I. Bill for World War II Veterans, American Political Science Research, vol.96, issue.2, pp.351-365, 2002.

S. Mettler, Soldiers to Citizens. The G.I. Bill and the Making of the Greates Generation, 2005.

S. Mettler and J. Soss, The Consequences of Public Policy for Democratic Citizenship: Bridging Policy Studies and Mass Politics, vol.2, pp.55-73, 2004.

N. Morel, . Palier, . Bruno, and J. Palme, Beyond the Welfare State as we knew it?, Towards a Social Investment Welfare State? Ideas, Policies and Challenges, pp.1-30, 2012.

K. J. Morgan, Promoting social investment through work-family policies: which nations do it and why?, Towards a Social Investment Welfare State? Ideas, Policies and Challenges, pp.153-180, 2012.

K. J. Morgan, Path Shifting of the Welfare State: Electoral Competition and the Expansion of Work-Family Policies in Western Europe, World Politics, vol.65, issue.1, pp.73-115, 2013.

J. Myles and J. Quadagno, Political theories of the welfare state, Social Service Review, vol.76, issue.1, pp.34-57, 2002.

I. K. Naumann, Child care and feminism in West Germany and Sweden in the 1960s and 1970s, Journal of European Social Policy, vol.15, issue.1, pp.47-63, 2005.

I. K. Naumann, Childcare Politics in the 'New' Welfare State. Class Religion, and Gender in the Shaping of Political Agendas, The Politics of the New Welfare State, pp.287-307, 2012.

M. Nelson and J. D. Stepehens, Do social investment policies produce more and better jobs?, Towards a Social Investment Welfare State? Ideas, Policies and Challenges, pp.205-234, 2012.

M. Nelson and J. Sandberg, Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America: An Experiment with Social Investment? Paper prepared for the International Sociological Association World Congress, 2014.

R. Nikolai, Towards social investment? Patterns of public policy in the OECD world, Towards a Social Investment Welfare State? Ideas, Policies and Challenges, pp.91-116, 2012.

J. S. O'connor, A. Orloff, . Shola, and S. Shaver, States, Markets, Families: Gender, Liberalism, and Social Policy in, 1999.

A. Orloff and . Shola, Gender and the Social Rights of Citizenship: The Comparative Analysis of Gender Relations and Welfare States, American Sociological Review, vol.58, issue.3, pp.303-328, 1993.

A. Orloff and . Shola, State Policies to Promote Women's Employment across the Affluent Democracies, The State After Statism. New State Activities in the Age of Liberalization. Cambridge, pp.230-268, 2006.

B. Palier, Ambiguous agreement, cumulative change: French social policy in the 1990s, Beyond continuity: Institutional change in advanced political economies, pp.127-144, 2005.

I. Peng, The social protection floor and the 'New' social investment policies in Japan and South Korea, Global Social Policy, 2014.

P. Pierson, When Effect Becomes Cause: Policy Feedback and Political Change, World Politics, vol.45, issue.4, pp.595-628, 1993.

P. Pierson, The New Politics of the Welfare State, vol.48, pp.143-179, 1996.

P. Pierson, Irresistible forces, immovable objects: Postindustrial welfare states confront permanent fiscal austerity, Journal of European Public Policy, vol.5, issue.4, pp.539-560, 1998.

P. Pierson, Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics, American Political Science Review, vol.94, issue.2, pp.251-267, 2000.

P. Pierson, Coping with Permanent Austerity: Welfare State Restructuring in Affluent Democracies, The New Politics of the Welfare State, pp.410-456, 2001.

D. Rueda, Insider-outsider politics in industrialized democracies: the challenge to social democratic parties, American Political Science Review, vol.99, issue.01, pp.61-74, 2005.

D. Rueda, Social Democracy Inside Out: Partisanship and Labor Market Policy in Advanced Industrialized Democracies. Oxford, 2007.

J. Rydgren, Class Politics and the Radical Right, 2012.

D. Sainsbury, Gender Equality and Welfare States, 1996.

D. Sainsbury, Gender, Policy Regimes, and Politics, pp.245-276, 1999.

J. Sandberg, Between Poor Relief and Human Capital Investments -Paradoxes in Hybrid Social Assistance, Social Policy and Administration, vol.50, issue.3, pp.316-335, 2016.

J. Sandberg and T. Engel, Politicisation of Conditional Cash Transfers: The Case of Guatemala, Development Policy Review, vol.33, issue.4, pp.503-522, 2015.

S. Saxonberg and D. Szelewa, The continuing legacy of the communist legacy? The development of family policies in Poland and the Czech Republic, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, vol.14, issue.3, pp.351-379, 2007.

F. W. Scharpf, Crisis and Choice in European Social Democracy, 1991.

R. Schlanser, Qui Utilise les Crèches en Suisse? Logiques Sociales du Recours aux Structures d'Accueil Collectif pour la Petite Enfance. Travail de mémoire, 2011.

M. G. Schmidt, When parties matter: A review of possibilities and limits of partisan influence on public policy, European Journal of Political Research, vol.30, pp.155-183, 1996.

M. G. Schmidt, Testing the retrenchment hypothesis: education spending, The Disappearing State? Retrenchment Realities in an Age of Globalisation, pp.159-183, 1960.

M. Seeleib-kaiser, S. Van-dyk, and M. Roggenkamp, Party politics and social welfare: Comparing Christian and social democracy in, 2008.

B. Seung-ho, L. Seung-yoon, and . Sophia, New Solution to Stagnant Female Employment Rate?: Korean Female Labor Market and Social Investment Policies, International Conference on Assessing the social investment strategy, vol.10, 2014.

T. Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers. The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States, 1992.

E. London,

S. Soares, G. Osorio, . Rafael, F. Soares, . Veras et al., Conditional cash transfers in Brazil, Chile and Mexico: impacts upon inequality, Estudios Económicos, vol.1, pp.207-224, 2009.

J. D. Stephens, The transition from capitalism to socialism, 1979.

J. D. Stephens, E. Huber, and L. Ray, The Welfare State in Hard Times, Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism, pp.164-193, 1999.

D. Szelewa and M. P. Polakowski, Who cares? Changing patterns of childcare in Central and Eastern Europe, Journal of European Social Policy, vol.18, issue.2, pp.115-131, 2008.

P. Taylor-gooby, New Risks, New Welfare? Oxford, 2004.

. Taylor-gooby, . Peter, J. M. Gumy, and A. Otto, Can 'New Welfare' address poverty through more and better jobs, Journal of Social Policy, vol.44, issue.1, pp.83-104, 2015.

M. Tepe and P. Vanhuysse, Parties, Unions and Activation Strategies: The Context-Dependent Politics of Active Labour Market Policy Spending, Political Studies, vol.61, issue.3, pp.480-504, 2013.

C. Trampusch and B. Palier, «Between X and Y». How Process Tracing Contributes to Opening the Black Box of Cauality, New Political Economy, 2016.

G. Tsebelis, Decision making in political systems: Veto players in presidentialism, parliamentarism, multicameralism and multipartyism, British Journal of Political Science, vol.25, issue.3, pp.289-325, 1995.

G. Tsebelis, Veto players: How political institutions work, 2002.

M. Vaalavuo, The Redistributive Impact of 'Old' and 'New' Social Spending, Journal of Social Policy, vol.43, issue.3, pp.513-539, 2013.

. Van-lancker, . Wim, and J. Ghysels, Who benefits? The social distribution of subsidized childcare in Sweden and Flanders, Acta Sociologica, vol.55, issue.2, pp.125-142, 2012.

O. Van-vliet and F. Koster, Europeanization and the political economy of active labour market policies, European Union Politics, vol.12, issue.2, pp.217-239, 2011.

A. Vatter, Kantonale Demokratien im Vergleich. Entstehungsgründe, Interaktionen und Wirkungen poitischer Institutionen in den Schweizer Kantonen, 2002.

A. Vatter, Handbuch der Schweizer Politik. Zürich: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, pp.245-274, 2014.

A. Vatter and M. Freitag, Die Janusköpfigkeit von Verhandlungsdemokratien. Zur Wirkung von Konkordanz, direkter Demokratie und dezentralen Entscheidungsstrukturen auf den öf-fentlichen Sektor der Schweizer Kantone, Swiss Political Science Review, vol.8, issue.2, pp.53-80, 2002.

R. Weaver and . Kent, The Politics of Blame Avoidance, Journal of Public Policy, vol.6, issue.4, pp.371-398, 1986.

R. Weaver and . Kent, Paths and Forks or Chutes and Ladders?: Negative Feedbacks and Policy Regime Change, Journal of Public Policy, vol.30, issue.2, pp.137-162, 2010.

C. Yeh, L. , and J. , The Politics of the Social Investment Turn in Taiwan. Why the Social Investment Turn failed, 2014.

C. Zollinger, Die Adaption der Familienpolitik an neue soziale Risiken in der Schweiz, Graduell transformativer Politikwandel in postindustriellen Gesellschaften

C. Zucco, The President's "New" Constituency: Lula and the Pragmatic Vote in Brazil's 2006 Presidential Elections, Journal of Latin American Studies, vol.40, issue.1, pp.29-49, 2008.

L. Le, Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques) est un laboratoire d'excellence (Labex)

, Ce projet est distingué par le jury scientifique international désigné par l'Agence nationale de la recherche (ANR)

, Il est financé dans le cadre des investissements d'avenir