, author wishes to thank the Oxford-Sciences Po Research Group, the Sciences Po Alumni UK Charity Trust, the Department of Politics and International Relations

. By-middle-east, . We-mean-bahrain, . Egypt, . Iraq, . Israel et al.,

H. Nassar and A. Ghoneim, Trade and Migration, Are They Complements or Substitutes: A Review of Four MENA Countries, 2002.

A. Kapiszewski, UN Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development in the Arab Region, Population Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat Beirut, 2006.

, Libya's Secretariat of Planning estimated that half of Libya's population was constituted of foreigners, mainly Egyptians and Asians. See Nassar and Ghoneim, 1983.

S. Sharon, M. Russell, and . Teitelbaum, International Migration and International Trade, issue.160, 1992.

, Source: National Statistical Units and Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: The 2005 Revision

, The numbers are a matter of controversy between institutional sources, but according to the UNRWA definition of a refugee, Palestinian refugees registered with the UN numbered approximately 711, concern refugees registered with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), 1950.

, US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, World Refugee Report, 2009.

K. and B. N. Tran, Aspects of Labor Migration and Unemployment in the Arab Region (Egypt, 2001), 14 pages. 11. See contribution by Philippe Fargues, Generations Arabes, l'alchimie du nombre (Paris, 2000) and The Middle East Journal special issue in 2010 and research program at Georgetown School of Foreign Service, Doha, Qatar. 12. Nazli Choucri, The debate covers the effects of remittances at the global level and within the region itself. See for instance Charles, vol.23, pp.500-525, 1989.

S. Stanton and R. , International Migration and Political Turmoil in the Middle East, Les migrations dans le monde Arabe, vol.18, pp.719-746, 1988.

R. Bocco and M. Djalili,

R. Appleyard, Emigration Dynamics in Developing Countries, 1999.

L. Huan and -. Ling, East Asian Migrations to Middle East: Causes, Consequences and Considerations, International Migration Review, pp.19-36, 1984.

J. S. Birks, I. J. Seccombe, and C. A. Sinclair, Labour Migration in the Arab Gulf States: Patterns, Trends and Prospects, International Migration Review, vol.26, pp.267-86, 1988.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1468-2435.1988.tb00649.x

P. L. Mcmurray and . Martin, Contrary to Alan Richard and Philip Martin, we do not consider that migration policies in the Middle East changed with the economic recession in the 1980s, shifting from "almost textbook laissez faire policies" to more political stances. See Alan Richards and, Recent Trends in Middle Eastern Migrations, vol.16, pp.134-55, 1977.

I. J. Seccombe and R. I. Lawless, Dependence on Foreign Workers in the Gulf and the International Oil Companies: 1910-1950, International Migration Review, p.20, 1986.

J. S. Birks and C. A. Sinclair, At the domestic level in receiving countries, the change in the origin of migrant labor during the 1980s reflected political pressures and the fall in state revenues. Asian wages were lower, and the gain in labor costs could help absorb part of the decline of oil revenue. A diversified Asian workforce was also more likely to meet the demand for both highly and poorly skilled labor. But Asian workers were also considered less likely to settle in the Gulf, a trait that perfectly fit the agenda of many Gulf policy makers who had started to regard migration as a threat to regime stability, state formation, and national security. 26. Nazli Choucri, Asians in the Arab World: Labor Migration and Public Policy, vol.24, pp.252-73, 1980.

N. Van-hear, New Diasporas, The Mass Exodus, Dispersal and Regrouping of Migrant Communities, 1998.

V. Prompunthum, 29. Recently, part of the Saudi business community has been trying to open the borders of the country once again to Thai domestic workers as the cost of Indonesian domestic workers has risen dramatically over the past few months due to an increase in the fare and commissions of Indonesian recruiting agents. See Arab News, Overseas Employment Policy in Thailand, vol.30, pp.289-301, 1983.

T. B. Stevenson, Yemeni Migrants Come Home: Reabsorbing One Million Migrants, International Migration Review, vol.181, pp.352-74, 1993.
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L. Fawcett, Regionalism from a Historical Perspective, Global Politics of Regionalism: Theory and Practices, pp.21-37, 2005.
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L. Fawcett, Regionalism from a Historical Perspective, p.24
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M. Barnett, Dialogues in Arab Politics, 1998.

M. Hudson, See for instance, Louise Fawcett and Andrew Hurrel, The Middle East Dilemma, vol.38, pp.24-25, 1996.

A. Gamble and A. Payne, Regionalism and World Order, 1996.

B. Hoekman and P. Messerlin, Initial Conditions and Incentives for Arab Economic Integration: Can the European Community's Success be Emulated?, 2002.

T. Kanaan, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, United Nations, 1999. 40. Zaki al-Arsuzi, Ba'th al-ummah al-'Arabiyah wa-risalatuha ila al-'alam: al-lisa'n al-'Arabi [The Renaissance of the Arab Community and its Message to the World: The Arabic Language, p.19

, A recent bibliography in eight volumes edited by the Center of Arab Unity Studies in Beirut has listed the contributions to the study and documentation of Arabism in the twentieth century in Arabic, French, and English: Bibliyughrafiya al-wahdah al-'Arabiyah lil-qarn al, 1908.

G. Beaugé and A. Roussillon, Le migrant et son double: migration et unité arabe, 1988.

, Arab Economic Integration: Between Hope and Reality, 2003.

B. Korany and A. E. Dessouki, The Foreign Policies of Arab States: The Challenges of Change, 1984.

N. Shafik, Labor Migration and Economic Integration in the Middle East, The Middle East Dilemma, vol.47, p.292

A. Dawisha, Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair, 2003.

J. S. Birks and C. A. Sinclair, International Migration Project Country Case Study: Kuwait, 1977.

N. Choucri, The New Migration in the Middle East: A Problem for Whom ?, International Migration Review, vol.11, pp.421-464, 1977.

A. E. Dessouki, Apart from pan-Arab sympathy expressed by intellectuals and military officials in the 1960s around Prince Bin Talal and the National Front for Arab Liberation in 1963, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries remained under United States influence for their economic and foreign policy and therefore did not participate in the pan-Arab emancipation, The Shift in Egypt's Migration Policy, vol.18, p.238, 1982.

M. Barnett, Sovereignty, Nationalism and Regional Order in the Arab State System, International Organization, vol.49, pp.479-510, 1995.

M. Girgis, Mediterranean Development Forum Labor Workshop, National versus Migrant Workers in the GCC: Coping with Change, 2000.

E. Ambrosetti and G. Tattolo, Petrole immigration de travail vers les pays du Golfe, Paper presented at the 13th AIDELF Conference, 1974.

Q. Zurayq and &. Ma, , 1948.

R. Vitalis and . America's-kingdom, Mythmaking on the Saudi Oil Frontier, 2006.

, A ? 'ish 'Al??SâAl??Al??Sâ lih, Al-Yaman wa-dû al al-qurn al-Afriq??.Afriq??. Dirâsa tahl??liyyatahl??liyya tawth??qiyyatawth??qiyya li'lâqât al-yaman ma'a Jibû t??,t??, al-Sû mâl, Irt??riyâIrt??riyâ, Ithyû biyâ, al-Sû dân khila al-fatra 1990-2002 [Yemen and the Horn of Africa: Documentary analysis of the relationships between Yemen, 1990.

S. Sishagne, Addis Abä ba, 1988). 63. Recent historiography in English on the guerrilla remains highly controversial as most of the debate around the ideologies and the cultural identity of the independence movements and their institutional avatars, the several "liberation fronts," are embedded in the post-1991 debate about the Eritrean national identity and the formation of a nation. For detailed discussion see Alemseged Abbay, Identity Jilted of Re-Imagining Identity? The Divergent Paths of the Eritrean and Tigrayan Nationalist Struggles, vol.1, 1960.

L. Cliffe and B. Davidson, The Long Struggle of Eritrea for Independence and Constructive Peace, 1988.

H. Erlich, The Struggle over Eritrea, 1962-1978, War and Revolution in the Horn of, Africa, 1983.

R. Iyob, The Eritrean Struggle for Independence: Domination, Resistance and Nationalism, pp.1941-1993, 1995.

T. Negash, Brothers at War: Making Sense of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War, 2000.

O. Yohannes, Eritrea: A Pawn in World Politics, 1991.

. Muhammad-'othmâ-n-abu-bâ-kr, Târ?Târ??kh Ir??triyyâIr??triyyâ al-mu'a ?sir, Irdan wa sha'aban [History of Eritrea, The Land and the People, 1994.

. Badr-hassan-shafi'a-?, Ir??triyyâIr??triyyâ : al-tawaja sawb al-'arab.. . limadhâ ?" [Eritrea: the Arab Orientation

A. , International Politics Journal, vol.152, pp.200-205, 2003.

A. Othman-sabbe, leader of the Eritrean Liberation Front and subsequently of several secessionist movements in the 1980s, wrote extensively to defend this idea that legitimized his Arab diplomacy in favor of the guerrilla and against Ethiopia

. Sabbe, with senior members of the Eritrean community in Riyadh and Jeddah. 67. In order to understand the political context surrounding the circulation of Eritreans, we explored the archives of the Sudanese central administration managing refugee issues, the Sudanese Commissioner of Refugee. We traced back administrative practices around entry, exit and circulation of CTD holders in the oil rich countries and confronted those with a series of interviews of former Eritrean migrants refugees in Saudi Arabia in, Haq??qaHaq??qa al-sirâ ' f??Irt??riyâf??f??Irt?f??Irt??riyâ, 1965.

, Article 1 Constitution of the Arab Republic of Libya, 1969. 70. Even states that contain large non-Arab populations like Bahrain (Iranian minority) have adopted the Arab standard, The Convention was adopted by Egypt and the theme of Arab unity was included in the Syrian Constitution of 1973, the Libyan Constitution, 1969.

J. Caplan and J. Torpey, Documenting Individual Identity, 2001.

, On this and the historiographical debate around it, see Lionel Cliffe and Basil Davidson, The Long Struggle of Eritrea for Independence and Constructive Peace

R. Iyob, The Eritrean Struggle for Independance: Domination, Resistance and Nationalism 1941-1993 (Cambridge, 1995), but also Haggai Erlich, 1994.

S. Sishagne, Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, vol.1, p.451, 1960.

, International Protection (SCIP) EC/SCP/10 ,www.unhcr.org.. 77. "(c) Geographical validity of Convention Travel Documents. Art. 17. According to paragraph 4 of the Schedule to the 1951 Convention, the document shall, save in special or exceptional cases, be made valid for the largest possible number of countries. States do not normally restrict the document's geographical validity. Some States, however, for security reasons, 1967.

P. Nobel, Refugee Law in the Sudan with the Refugee Conventions and the Regulation of Asylum Act of 1974, Research Report, issue.64, 1982.

, Migration as Diplomacy 19