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Mobilité observée et fluidité sociale en France au fil des cohortes de naissance et selon l’avancée en âge

Abstract : This paper analyzes intergenerational social mobility trends within French society over birth cohorts and across age. Such an approach allows to precisely study the impact of the expansion and democratization of education on mobility phenomena. The data come from the Formation & Qualification Professionnelle surveys conducted in 1970, 1977, 1985, 1993 and 2003. They cover men belonging to six birth cohorts, from the oldest (1906-24) to the most recent one (1965-73). After referring to the transformations of observed mobility (or absolute mobility rates), the paper focuses on changes in social fluidity (or relative mobility rates). In particular, we show that the statistical association between class origin and class destination has weakened over the cohorts, and that a similar trend is also observed for the association between class origin and highest degree obtained as for the one between education and class destination. The first and third associations also decline with advancing age. Furthermore, the statistical association, controlling for education, between class origin and class destination is lower in the most educated fractions of the population whose importance has increased over the cohorts. Finally, a methodology proposed by Breen (Social Forces, 2010) allows studying the relative importance of the different factors that may have contributed to the increase in social fluidity. For the 1945-54 cohort compared to older cohorts, the reduction of inequality of educational opportunity is the main factor. However, for the 1955-64 and 1965-73 cohorts, the expansion of education and the compositional effect it produces becomes the primary factor. Moreover, in the last two cohorts, the effect of the reduction of inequality of educational opportunity is cancelled by a strengthened direct, i.e. controlling for education, effect of class origin.
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Louis-André Vallet. Mobilité observée et fluidité sociale en France au fil des cohortes de naissance et selon l’avancée en âge. Notions d’âge, de période et de cohorte : Peut-on en démêler les effets ?, Sep 2015, INED, France. Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, pp.23, 2015. ⟨hal-01520854⟩

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