J. Bourlanges, De l'identité de l'Europe aux frontières de l'Union, Etudes, vol.4006, pp.729-772, 2004.

S. Murat-belge, Between Turkey and Europe: Why Friendship is Welcome, Open Democracy, 2004.

R. Kastoryano, Les Turcs d'Europe et leur désir d'Europe, CEMOTI, pp.141-58, 2003.

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T. Faist, Mediterrenean with restrictions; in 1993 only 46 percent agreed. Eurobarometer Transnational action is the basis of the formation of a transnational community, i.e., a community that shares points of reference and interests across borders. It would be impossible to cite all the studies that have appeared and continue to appear on the phenomenon of transnationalism since the 1990s, but it is important to emphasize that they all agree on the fact that transnational community is built on the basis of solidarity networks across national frontiers, of populations with a common identity, be it religious, national, regional, or ethnic. See Basch, Glick-Shiller, and Blanc-Szanton Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments and Deterritorialized Nation-states Transnational social spaces out of international migration: Evolution, significance and future prospects Archives européennes de sociologie XXXIX, Migration and Transnational Social Spaces (Adelshot: Ashgate La Turquie et l'Europe: Une coopération tumultueuse: L'Harmattan, pp.60-213, 1991.

T. S. Halman, P. H. Stoddard, C. D. Cutnell, and M. W. Sullivan, Islam in Turkey created an association called the Federated Islamic State of Anatolia in 1985 He declared himself the Calif of believers who " had waited 70 years, " i.e., since the abolition of the Califate by the Turkish Republic Upon his death his adepts, arguing that " Muslims cannot wait an hour without a Calif named his son successor. The Sheyhulislam is only the leader of the National Vision movements, while the Calif calls in his speeches for an Islamic Republic following the Iranian example. The ideological cleavage between the two Turkish religious leaders in Germany refers to a Turkish Muslim identification in the first case and an international Muslim identification in the second. 13. This is at least the message of Fetullah Gülen, head of the Nurcu movement. For more on the brotherhood, see Serif Mardin, Religion and Social Change in Turkey: The Case of Beddiuzzaman Said Nursi Since the 1980s, Gülen has preached conciliation between Islam and secularism and its importance in the definition of " being Turkish, " and this beyond national borders. The importance this movement has attained through the media and public opinion as well as among the political class and intellectuals is the result of its schools ? more than 400 around the world, from Central Asia to Europe ? which aim to teach Islam, naturally, but also Turkish along with the language of the country in which the school is based. Still more important, at least in the Turkish context, are his statements on Turkish Islam, which have made him a kind of " negotiator of the Turkish identity, " combining the force of the state and the nation with that of the religion. 14. Since the late 1980s state representatives as well as members of successive governments have indirectly assisted the celebration of the pilgrimage which take place every August in central Anatolia. 15 L'immigration turque et kurde: La dynamique ségmentaire, la nouvelle donne générationnelle, et le nouvel ordre communicationnel, report for the FAS A report published in Brussels in 1991 estimated the direct or indirect economic support from Turks to be about 57 billion deutschmarks ? a sum that far exceeds state welfare expenditures for foreigners, which reached only 16 billion marks. Indeed, among the 1,800,000 Turks in Germany , there were 35,000 entrepreneurs, from restaurants to the industrial sector, employing a total of 150,000 Turks and 75,000 Germans, for a total turnover of 25 billion marks, who paid a total of one billion marks in taxes, Change and the Muslim World 156. 12. Also in Cologne Migrations New Sheet The Economic and Political Impact of Turkish Migration in Germany, Center for Turkey Studies See also the statistic of the Union of Turkish Entrepreneurs in Berlin and the Center for Turkey Studes, Konsumgewohnheiten und wirtschaftliche situation der türkischen Bevölkerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Wiener and R. Münz, Migrants, Refugees and Foreign Policy: US and German Policies Toward the Countries of Origin, 1981.

G. Sheffer and T. Smith, Foreign Attachments: The Power of Ethnic Groups in the Making of the American Foreign Policy, Diasporas in International Politics Shain, Marketing the American Creed Abroad. Diasporas in the US and their Homelands, 1986.

I. Karslsson, Turkey's Cultural and Religious Heritage ? An Asset to the EU Göle, Interpénétrations. L'Islam et l'Europe (Paris: Galaade, 2005), 127. 21. Ph. Reynaud, " L'Europe peut-elle avoir des frontières?, Quelle identité pour l'Europe? Le multiculturalisme à l'épreuve, pp.39-47, 2004.

H. Grabbe, From drift to strategy: The case of Turkey's accession, " in Why Europe Should Embrace Turkey, pp.11-23, 2005.