. Cf, . Hoselitz, and F. Bert, Entrepreneurship and Capital Formation in France and Britain since 1700 This particular thesis « that broadly overestimates the importance of the State in the creation and the funding of industryAngleterre et France au XVIII e siècle : analyse comparée de deux croissances économiques, Capital Formation and Economic Growth (Conference Proceeding, NY, 1953) (Princeton Histoire Economique : XVIII e -XX e siècles, pp.291-337, 1955.

G. V. Taylor, Noncapitalist Wealth and the Origins of the French Revolution, The American Historical Review, vol.72, issue.2, pp.72-469, 1967.
DOI : 10.2307/1859237

P. Léon, Les nouvelles élites, Histoire économique et sociale de la France, pp.601-650, 1970.

W. Doyle and . Venality, The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France (Oxford, 1996) (p. 20) and Necker, Jacques, De l'administration des finances de la France, pp.1784-149