B. Tamin, Saving-investment Correlations, Immobile Capital, Government Policy, or Endogenous Behavior, IMF Staff Papers, vol.37, issue.2, pp.360-387, 1990.

T. Beck, A. Demirque-kant, and R. Levine, A New Database on the Structure and Development of the Financial Sector, The World Bank Economic Review, vol.14, issue.3, 1999.
DOI : 10.1093/wber/14.3.597

C. Bergsten, J. Fred, and . Williamson, Exchange Rates and Trade Policy Trade Policy in the 1980's. Washington : Institute for International Economies, 1983.

B. Michael and D. , The Bretton Woods International Monetary System: A, 1993.

H. Overview, in A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System : Lessons for International Monetary Reform edited by, pp.3-98

M. D. Bordo and B. Eichengreen, Implications of the Great Depression for the Development of the International Monetary System in The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century edited by, pp.403-453, 1998.

B. Michael, D. , and H. James, The Adam Klug Memorial Lecture, 2001.

N. Haberler, The Case for Floating Exchange Rates as an Alternative to Bretton Woods, NBER working paper

B. Michael, D. , and L. Jonung, The Long-Run Behavior of the Velocity of Circulation: The International Evidence, 1987.

B. Michael, D. , and L. Jonung, Monetary Regimes, Inflation and Monetary Reform: An Essay in Honor of Axel Leijonhuvhud, 1995.

. Vellupillai, Inflation, Institutions, and Information: Essays in Honor of Axel Leijonhuvhud

B. Michael, D. , and L. Jonung, A Return to the Convertibility Principle? Monetary and Fiscal Regimes in Historical Perspective Monetary Theory as a Basis for Monetary Policy, 2001.

B. Michael, D. , and F. Kydland, The Gold Standard as a Rule: An Essay in Exploration Explorations in Economic History, 1995.

B. Michael, D. , and R. Macdonald, Violations of the 'Rules of the, 1997.

B. Michael, D. , and H. Rockoff, The Gold Standard as a Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval, Journal of Economic History, 1996.

B. Michael, D. Schwartz, and A. J. , The Operation of the Specie Standard, 1996.

B. Michael, D. , S. Anna, and J. , Monetary Policy Regimes and Economic Performance: The Historical Record, 1999.

C. Guillermo and C. Reinhart, Fear of Floating, 2000.

C. Guillermo and C. Reinhart, Fixing for Your Life, 2000.

M. Coiteux and O. Simon, The Saving Retention Coefficient Over the Long and Short Run: Evidence from Panel Regressions, Journal of International Money and Finance, 2000.

M. De-cecco, Introduzione, pp.1861-1914, 1990.

I. M. Drummond, The Russian Gold Standard, 1897???1914, The Journal of Economic History, vol.36, issue.03, pp.633-88, 1976.
DOI : 10.1017/S0022050700099538

E. Barry, Globalizing Capital: A History of the International Monetary System, 1996.

E. Barry, The Baring Crisis in a Mexican Mirror, UC Berkeley, 1997.

E. Barry and M. Flandreau, The Geography of the Gold Standard, 1996.

. Fragility, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. New Challenges for Monetary Policy, pp.329-368

E. Barry and P. Temin, The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1998.

E. Barry, Trends and cycles in foreign lending, Horst Siebert editor, Capital flows in the World Economy, 1992.

E. Paul, The Theory of Forward Exchange, 1937.

F. Martin and C. Horioka, Domestic saving and international capital flows, The Economic Journal, vol.90, pp.314-329, 1980.

F. Eduardo and R. Hausmann, Is FDI a Safer Form of Financing, IADB Working Paper, issue.416, 2000.

F. Neil, The World's Banker: The History of the House of Rothschild, 1998.

F. Stanley, Is the Popular View Correct? " IMF (mimeo), 2001.

F. Marc, Crises and Punishment: Moral Hazard and the pre, 1914.

F. Marc and J. Komlos, How To Run a Target Zone? Age Old Lessons from a Austro-Hungarian Experiment (1896-1914), WP CESifo, p.71, 2001.

M. Flandreau, L. Cacheux, J. Zumer, and F. , Stability without a Pact? Lessons from the European Gold Standard, 1880-1913, Economic Policy, issue.26, pp.117-162, 1998.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01037858

M. Flandreau and R. C. , La Grande retransformation? L'intégration financière internationale 1880-2000, Economie Internationale, 1999.

F. Georgio, The boom that never was? Latin American Loans in London, pp.1822-1825, 2000.

F. John, Chronicles and characters of the Stock Exchange, 1859.

F. Milton, The Demand for Money: Some Theoretical and Empirical Results, Journal of Political Economy, vol.67, issue.4, pp.327-51, 1959.

G. Guilio and M. , The Anatomy of an International Monetary Regime: The Classical Gold Standard 1880-1914, 1995.

G. Alexander, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective, 1962.

G. Attish, R. Anna-marie-gulde, J. Ostry, and H. Wolf, Does the Nominal Exchange Rate Regime Matter, IMF Working Paper 95, 1995.

G. Paul, Before Command: an Economic History of Russia from Emancipation to the first 5 year plan, 1995.

H. Robert and R. Palmquist, The Interpretation of Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations, American Economic Review, vol.70, issue.3, pp.474-475, 1980.

H. Ricardo, U. Panizza, and E. Stein, Why Do Countries Float the Way They Float, IADB Working Paper, issue.418, 2000.

H. Ellhanon, An Exploration in the Theory of Exchange Rate Regimes, Journal of Political Economy, pp.865-90, 1981.

C. P. Hallwood, R. Macdonald, and I. W. Marsh, Credibility and Fundamentals, 1996.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9781139045841.004

M. T. Jones and M. Obstfeld, Saving, Investment, and Gold: A Reassessment of Historical Current Account Data, Working Paper National Bureau of Economic Research, issue.6103, 1997.
DOI : 10.3386/w6103

K. Mohsin and A. Senhadji, Financial Development and Economic Growth: An Overview, IMF Working Paper, vol.209, 2000.

W. Kemmerer-edwin, Modern currency reforms: a history and discussion of recent currency reforms in India islands, Straits Settlements and Mexico, 1916.

J. Komlos, Financial Innovation and the Demand for Money in, 1987.

G. C. Kostelenos, Money and output in modern Greece 1858-1938, 1995.

R. Krol, International capital mobility: evidence from panel data, Journal of International Money and Finance, vol.15, issue.3, pp.467-474, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0261-5606(96)00014-9

K. Paul, A Model of Balance of Payments Crises, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, vol.11, pp.311-325, 1979.

K. Paul, Target Zones and Exchange Rate Dynamics, Quarterly Journal of Economics CVI, issue.3, pp.669-682, 1991.

L. Henry, Cash Balances and the Interest Rate: A Pragmatic Approach, Review of Economics and Statistics, vol.36, pp.456-60, 1954.

J. Laughlin and . Laurence, The Principles of Money, 1903.

L. Maurice, La position internationale de la France, Presse de L'ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 1976.

L. Eduardo and F. Sturznegger, Exchange Rate Regimes and Economic Performance, IMF Staff Papers, 2001.

L. Robert and E. , Money Demand in the United States: A Quantitative Review, 1988.

M. Angus, Monitoring the World Economy 1920-1992 Exchange Rate Regime Transitions, Journal of Development Economics, 1995.

M. Alessandro and J. Blanchard-olivier, The Debt Burden and Debt Maturity, American Economic Review, vol.84, issue.1, pp.309-328, 1994.

M. Brian and R. , International Historical Statistics, 1992.

N. Larry, The Rise of Financial Capitalism : International Capital Markets in the Age of Reason, 1990.

O. Maurice, International capital mobility in the 90's " , in Understanding Interdependence: The Macroeconomics of the Open Economy, pp.201-261, 1995.

O. Maurice, The Logic of Currency Crises, 1984.

O. Maurice and A. M. Taylor, Globalization and Capital Markets, NBER conference on Globalization in Historical Perspective, 2001.

O. Maurice and A. M. Taylor, The Great Depression as a watershed: International capital mobility over the long run " , in The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century edited by Bordo, 1998.

R. Angela, Anchors Aweigh: The Transition from Commodity Money to Fiat Money in Western Economies, Canadian Journal of Economics, vol.26, pp.777-795, 1996.

R. Peter, L. , and R. Sylla, Financial Systems, Economic Growth and Globalization NBER Conference on Globalization in Historical Perspective, 2001.

S. Guillermo, Monetary and Banking Policy of Chile, p.75, 1926.

S. Lars and E. O. , Why Exchange Rates Bands?, Journal of Monetary Economics, vol.33, pp.157-199, 1994.

T. Guiseppe, A Paper Money but a Gold Debt: Italy under the Gold Standard, 1991.

T. Linda and L. , Saving, investment and international capital flows, Journal of International Economics, vol.31, pp.55-78, 1991.

W. Myra, The History of Foreign investment in the United States to, 1914.

Z. Robert, B. T. Banuri, T. , and J. B. Schor, Are world financial markets more open? If so, why and with what effects? Data Appendix, Financial Openness and National Autonomy : Opportunities and Constraints, pp.43-83, 1992.

G. Nominal and G. Real, Implicit price deflator and CPI: Data appendix to, available on request) for all countries except the following: Austria, Komlos, 1987.

. Austria, The Economist; Australia, Bordo and Rockoff, 1996.

. Brazil, Global financial data; Canada, Bordo and Jonung (1987) (we substituted long term interest rates for short term interest rates)

. Greece, data provided by Olga Charodonlakis; Italy, The Economist, 1993.

B. Netherlands and J. , The Economist, 1995.

. Russia, The Economist; Spain, Flandreau; Sweden, Flandreau

M. Nominal, G. Real, and G. , Population, Implicit price deflator and CPI, Government expenditures and Tax receipts