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Du legs lusitanien au discours indigéniste. Éléments d'histoire et de sociologie politiques de la revendication d'autochtonie des Betawi de Djakarta

Abstract : From Lusitanian heritage to discourse of autochtony. An insight into the political history and sociology of the Betawi demands in Jakarta - Much has been written about the survival of Portuguese-speaking Euro-Asian communities in the Malay world. For example, the re-invention of the "kristang identity" in Malacca, or the link between popular Catholicism and Portuguese speaking in Flores or Timor, have been the subject of detailed historical and ethnological studies. However, there is one ethnonym which has been given a Portuguese-speaking origin or dimension, but the history of which has just begun to be written: the orang Betawi of Jakarta. Yet this "betawi identity" is currently the focus of intense politicisation processes, and it is therefore of interest to shed light on the complex historicity of the "betawi identity". In August 2007, the main candidate to the position of Governor of Jakarta, Fauzi Bowo, conspicuously tried to woo "ethnic votes" by emphasising his betawi identity. This political manoeuvre cannot be explained without taking into account the story of betawi claims since the 1970s. The leaders of the "orang Betawi community "claim the orang Betawi are the direct heirs to the first inhabitants of the little port-city of Jacatra (Jakarta). Endorsing a discourse of autochtony that pits pribumi against non-pri (recent migrants to the capital), they advocate a principle of "ethnic priority". We will review the documentary evidence regarding the history of the orang Betawi since the early 17th century. We will then scrutinize the ways the "betawi identity" has been crafted by self-proclaimed spokespersons. Finally, we will try to decipher the underground relationships that link the Djakarta city council to some violent betawi gangs such as the Betawi Brotherhood Forum (FBR) set up in the 1990s by Fadloli el-Muhir.
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Romain Bertrand. Du legs lusitanien au discours indigéniste. Éléments d'histoire et de sociologie politiques de la revendication d'autochtonie des Betawi de Djakarta. Lusotopie, Brill Academic Publishers, 2008, 15 (2), pp.175-196. ⟨hal-01022568⟩

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