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Inde : l'avènement politique de la caste

Abstract : [The political coming-of-age of India's caste system] Reverse discrimination measures in favor of the untouchable caste were taken in India as far back as the colonial period, especially in the form of hiring quotas in the public service. They were taken up virtually intact by the leaders of newly independent India without provoking any debate, since the untouchables are situated so low on the social ladder that they do not threaten the elite's privileges. The problem begins with the castes just above: difficulties of definition in a young nation preoccupied by unity and hoping to surpass caste divisions; difficulties of implementation when the castes between the untouchables and the "twice born" make up the majority of the population, and the upper castes, feeling threatened by any measure in favor of these lower castes, put up resistance. After a long standstill, these lower castes mobilized in the 19080s and have formed political parties to defend themselves. Consequently, the law of numbers works in their favor.
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Christophe Jaffrelot. Inde : l'avènement politique de la caste. Critique Internationale, Presses de sciences po, 2002, pp.131-144. ⟨hal-01017909⟩

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