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L'autonomie productive et alimentaire : les paysans kayambis entre agro-industrie et agroécologie (Equateur)

Abstract : This social geography thesis examines the reorganization of peasant production and food autonomy in the Kayambi territory (northern Ecuadorian Andes), autonomy defined as the capability of peasants to choose their dependencies. Located near the capital city of Quito (2 million inhabitants), the Kayambi territory is marked by an altitudinal organization of environmental conditions.The first part of the thesis offers a historical analysis of the transformation of the Kayambian agri-food system since the Inca colonization based on a re-reading of the works of historians and anthropologists. Andean agriculture is the heir to an agrarian and food dualism founded five centuries ago on the latifundiary and small property structures of Spanish colonization. This agrarian system constitutes the base of a territorial agri-food system polarized by forms of agriculture as well as by forms of supply, processing, distribution and food behavior.The second part of the thesis gives an account of the contemporary recompositions of Kambian peasant production and food autonomy based on qualitative and quantitative interviews conducted with development actors (37 interviews) and peasant-eaters (110 studies of in-depth case studies on agricultural practices and 65 surveys on dietary practices ([“24-hour dietary recall” repeated 5 times and participatory observations]). The agrarian reforms (1964, 1973, 1976) freed the Kayambian peasantry from the pre-capitalist semi-servile, social relations of production. The latter thus gained land, production and food autonomy. However, the central hypothesis of this thesis is that most Kayambian peasants are increasingly economically, culturally, technically and politically dependent on agricultural and food capitalism and the food supply of an urban world. As a result, they have less control over their economic and social development and less capacity for self-criticism. However, several collective projects, in particular the agroecological project, allow the development of new practices and dialogue that counteract the growing dependence on the market both at the production and food level.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 17, 2022 - 5:47:12 PM
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Sonia Roman Valencia. L'autonomie productive et alimentaire : les paysans kayambis entre agro-industrie et agroécologie (Equateur). Géographie. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021MON30063⟩. ⟨tel-03670827⟩

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